Drug Health Review Abilify Summary of Uses And Effects Good And Bad

Drug Health Review Abilify Summary of Uses And Effects Good And Bad

Abilify has become popular in the treatment of certain mental illnesses. There have been recent studies and reports that have brought some issues that that had not been know to this point. Abilify is still prescribed however it should only be used, like other prescription medications, under the supervision of a physician. There are additional resource links at the end of this post.

Drug Health Review Abilfy Summary of Uses And Effects Good And Bad
Drug Health Review Abilfy Summary of Uses And Effects Good And Bad

ABILIFY SUMMARY

ABILIFY® (aripiprazole) is a psychotropic drug that is available as tablets for oral administration.

ABILIFY (aripiprazole) is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. The efficacy of ABILIFY in the treatment of schizophrenia was established in short-term (4- and 6-week) controlled trials of schizophrenic inpatients (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Clinical Studies).

The efficacy of ABILIFY in maintaining stability in patients with schizophrenia who had been symptomatically stable on antipsychotic medications for periods of 3 months or longer, were discontinued from those other medications, and were then administered ABILIFY 15 mg/day and observed for relapse during a period of up 26 weeks was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Clinical Studies). The physician who elects to use ABILIFY for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Schizophrenia

ABILIFY is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. The efficacy of ABILIFY in the treatment of schizophrenia was established in short-term (4- and 6-week) controlled trials of schizophrenic inpatients (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Clinical Studies).

The efficacy of ABILIFY in maintaining stability in patients with schizophrenia who had been symptomatically stable on other antipsychotic medications for periods of 3 months or longer, were discontinued from those other medications, and were then administered ABILIFY 15 mg/day and observed for relapse during a period of up to 26 weeks was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Clinical Studies). The physician who elects to use ABILIFY for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Bipolar Disorder

ABILIFY is indicated for the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes associated with Bipolar Disorder.

The efficacy of ABILIFY was established in two placebo-controlled trials (3 week) of inpatients with DSM-IV criteria for Bipolar I Disorder who were experiencing an acute manic or mixed episode with or without psychotic features (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Clinical Studies).

The efficacy of ABILIFY in maintaining efficacy in patients with Bipolar I Disorder with a recent manic or mixed episode who had been stabilized and then maintained for at least 6 weeks, was demonstrated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Prior to entering the double-blind, randomization phase of this trial, patients were clinically stabilized and maintained their stability for 6 consecutive weeks on ABILIFY. Following this 6-week maintenance phase, patients were randomized to either placebo or ABILIFY and monitored for relapse (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Clinical Studies). Physicians who elect to use ABILIFY for extended periods, that is, longer than 6 weeks, should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Agitation Associated with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Mania

ABILIFY Injection is indicated for the treatment of agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, manic or mixed. “Psychomotor agitation” is defined in DSM-IV as “excessive motor activity associated with a feeling of inner tension.” Patients experiencing agitation often manifest behaviors that interfere with their diagnosis and care (eg, threatening behaviors, escalating or urgently distressing behavior, or self-exhausting behavior), leading clinicians to the use of intramuscular antipsychotic medications to achieve immediate control of the agitation.

The efficacy of ABILIFY Injection for the treatment of agitation associated with schizophrenia or Bipolar I Disorder was established in three short-term (24-hour), placebo-controlled trials in agitated inpatients with schizophrenia or Bipolar I Disorder (manic or mixed episodes) (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Clinical Studies).

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

ORAL

Schizophrenia

Usual Dose

The recommended starting and target dose for ABILIFY is 10 or 15 mg/day administered on a once-a-day schedule without regard to meals. ABILIFY has been systematically evaluated and shown to be effective in a dose range of 10 to 30 mg/day, when administered as the tablet formulation; however, doses higher than 10 or 15 mg/day were not more effective than 10 or 15 mg/day. Dosage increases should not be made before 2 weeks, the time needed to achieve steady state.

Dosage in Special Populations

Dosage adjustments are not routinely indicated on the basis of age, gender, race, or renal or hepatic impairment status (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations).

Dosage adjustment for patients taking aripiprazole concomitantly with potential CYP3A4 inhibitors: When concomitant administration of ketoconazole with aripiprazole occurs, aripiprazole dose should be reduced to one-half of the usual dose. When the CYP3A4 inhibitor is withdrawn from the combination therapy, aripiprazole dose should then be increased.

Dosage adjustment for patients taking aripiprazole concomitantly with potential CYP2D6 inhibitors: When concomitant administration of potential CYP2D6 inhibitors such as quinidine, fluoxetine, or paroxetine with aripiprazole occurs, aripiprazole dose should be reduced at least to one-half of its normal dose. When the CYP2D6 inhibitor is withdrawn from the combination therapy, aripiprazole dose should then be increased.

Dosage adjustment for patients taking potential CYP3A4 inducers: When a potential CYP3A4 inducer such as carbamazepine is added to aripiprazole therapy, the aripiprazole dose should be doubled (to 20 or 30 mg). Additional dose increases should be based on clinical evaluation. When carbamazepine is withdrawn from the combination therapy, the aripiprazole dose should be reduced to 10 to 15 mg.

Maintenance Therapy

While there is no body of evidence available to answer the question of how long a patient treated with aripiprazole should remain on it, systematic evaluation of patients with schizophrenia who had been symptomatically stable on other antipsychotic medications for periods of 3 months or longer, were discontinued from those medications, and were then administered ABILIFY 15 mg/day and observed for relapse during a period of up to 26 weeks, demonstrated a benefit of such maintenance treatment (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Clinical Studies). Patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment.

Switching from Other Antipsychotics

There are no systematically collected data to specifically address switching patients with schizophrenia from other antipsychotics to ABILIFY or concerning concomitant administration with other antipsychotics. While immediate discontinuation of the previous antipsychotic treatment may be acceptable for some patients with schizophrenia, more gradual discontinuation may be most appropriate for others. In all cases, the period of overlapping antipsychotic administration should be minimized.

Bipolar Disorder

Usual Dose

In clinical trials, the starting dose was 30 mg given once a day. A dose of 30 mg/day was found to be effective when administered as the tablet formulation. Approximately 15% of patients had their dose decreased to 15 mg based on assessment of tolerability. The safety of doses above 30 mg/day has not been evaluated in clinical trials.

Dosage in Special Populations

See Dosage in Special Populations under DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Schizophrenia.

Maintenance Therapy

While there is no body of evidence available to answer the question of how long a patient treated with aripiprazole should remain on it, patients with Bipolar I Disorder who had been symptomatically stable on ABILIFY Tablets (15 mg/day or 30 mg/day with a starting dose of 30 mg/day) for at least 6 consecutive weeks and then randomized to ABILIFY Tablets (15 mg/day or 30 mg/day) or placebo and monitored for relapse, demonstrated a benefit of such maintenance treatment (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Clinical Studies). While it is generally agreed that pharmacological treatment beyond an acute response in mania is desirable, both for maintenance of the initial response and for prevention of new manic episodes, there are no systematically obtained data to support the use of aripiprazole in such longer-term treatment (ie, beyond 6 weeks).

Oral Solution

The oral solution can be given on a mg-per-mg basis in place of the 5-, 10-, 15-, or 20-mg tablet strengths. Solution doses can be substituted for the tablet doses on a mg-per-mg basis up to 25 mg of the tablet. Patients receiving 30-mg tablets should receive 25 mg of the solution (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics).

Directions for Use of ABILIFY DISCMELT Orally Disintegrating Tablets

Patients should be told the following:

Do not open the blister until ready to administer. For single tablet removal, open the package and peel back the foil on the blister to expose the tablet. Do not push the tablet through the foil because this could damage the tablet. Immediately upon opening the blister, using dry hands, remove the tablet and place the entire ABILIFY DISCMELT orally disintegrating tablet on the tongue. Tablet disintegration occurs rapidly in saliva. It is recommended that ABILIFY DISCMELT be taken without liquid. However, if needed, it can be taken with liquid. Do not attempt to split the tablet.

INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION

Agitation Associated with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Mania

Usual Dose

The efficacy of aripiprazole injection in controlling agitation in these disorders was demonstrated in a dose range of 5.25 mg to 15 mg. The recommended dose in these patients is 9.75 mg. No additional benefit was demonstrated for 15 mg compared to 9.75 mg. A lower dose of 5.25 mg may be considered when clinical factors warrant. If agitation warranting a second dose persists following the initial dose, cumulative doses up to a total of 30 mg/day may be given. However, the efficacy of repeated doses of aripiprazole injection in agitated patients has not been systematically evaluated in controlled clinical trials. Also, the safety of total daily doses greater than 30 mg or injections given more frequently than every 2 hours have not been adequately evaluated in clinical trials.

If ongoing aripiprazole therapy is clinically indicated, oral aripiprazole in a range of 10 mg to 30 mg/day should replace aripiprazole injection as soon as possible (see PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder).

Administration of ABILIFY Injection

To administer ABILIFY Injection, draw up the required volume of solution into the syringe as shown in Table 6. Discard any unused portion.

Table 6: ABILIFY Injection Dosing Recommendations Single-Dose    Required Volume of Solution
5.25 mg    0.7 mL
9.75 mg    1.3 mL
15 mg    2 mL

ABILIFY Injection is intended for intramuscular use only. Do not administer intravenously or subcutaneously. Inject slowly, deep into the muscle mass.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

Dosage in Special Populations

See Dosage in Special Populations under DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Schizophrenia.

HOW SUPPLIED

ABILIFY® (aripiprazole) Tablets have markings on one side and are available in the strengths and packages listed in Table 7.

Table 7: ABILIFY Tablet Presentations Tablet
Strength    Tablet
Color/Shape    Tablet
Markings    Pack
Size    NDC
Code
2 mg    green
modified rectangle    “A-006”
and “2”    Bottle of 30

Blister of 100    59148-006-13

59148-006-35
5 mg    blue
modified rectangle    “A-007”
and “5”    Bottle of 30

Blister of 100    59148-007-13

59148-007-35
10 mg    pink
modified rectangle    “A-008”
and “10”    Bottle of 30

Blister of 100    59148-008-13

59148-008-35
15 mg    yellow
round    “A-009”
and “15”    Bottle of 30

Blister of 100    59148-009-13

59148-009-35
20 mg    white
round    “A-010”
and “20”    Bottle of 30

Blister of 100    59148-010-13

59148-010-35
30 mg    pink
round    “A-011”
and “30”    Bottle of 30

Blister of 100    59148-011-13

59148-011-35

ABILIFY® DISCMELT™ (aripiprazole) Orally Disintegrating Tablets are round tablets with markings on either side. ABILIFY DISCMELT is available in the strengths and packages listed in Table 8.

Table 8: ABILIFY DISCMELT Orally Disintegrating Tablet Presentations Tablet
Strength    Tablet
Color    Tablet
Markings    Pack
Size    NDC
Code
10 mg    pink (with
scattered specks)    “A” and “640”
“10”    Blister of 30    59148-640-23
15 mg    yellow (with
scattered specks)    “A” and “641”
“15”    Blister of 30    59148-641-23

ABILIFY® (aripiprazole) Oral Solution (1 mg/mL) is supplied in child-resistant bottles along with a calibrated oral dosing cup. ABILIFY oral solution is available as follows:

150-mL bottle      NDC 59148-013-15

ABILIFY® (aripiprazole) Injection for intramuscular use is available as a ready-to-use, 9.75 mg/1.3 mL (7.5 mg/mL) solution in clear, Type 1 glass vials as follows:

9.75 mg/1.3 mL single-dose vial       NDC 59148-016-65

Storage

Tablets

Store at 25° C (77° F); excursions permitted between 15° C to 30° C (59° F to 86° F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Oral Solution

Store at 25° C (77° F); excursions permitted between 15° C to 30° C (59° F to 86° F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Opened bottles of ABILIFY oral solution can be used for up to 6 months after opening, but not beyond the expiration date on the bottle. The bottle and its contents should be discarded after the expiration date.

Injection

Store at 25° C (77° F); excursions permitted between 15° C to 30° C (59° F to 86° F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light by storing in the original container. Retain in carton until time of use.

Tablets manufactured by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Tokyo, 101-8535 Japan or Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA

Orally disintegrating tablets, Oral solution and Injection manufactured by Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA

Distributed and marketed by Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc, Rockville, MD 20850 USA

Marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA

US Patent Nos: 5,006,528; 6,977,257; and 7,115,587

© 2006, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Tokyo, 101-8535 Japan

1216978A2
191707A8
1174/11-06

Rev November 2006

 

WARNINGS

Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis

Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death compared to placebo. ABILIFY (aripiprazole) is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis (see Boxed WARNING).

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs, including aripiprazole. Rare cases of NMS occurred during aripiprazole treatment in the worldwide clinical database. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure.

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to exclude cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (eg, pneumonia, systemic infection, etc) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever, and primary central nervous system pathology.

The management of NMS should include: 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy; 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring; and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for uncomplicated NMS.

If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported.

Tardive Dyskinesia

A syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.

The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief treatment periods at low doses.

There is no known treatment for established cases of tardive dyskinesia, although the syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is withdrawn. Antipsychotic treatment, itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome and, thereby, may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect that symptomatic suppression has upon the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown.

Given these considerations, ABILIFY should be prescribed in a manner that is most likely to minimize the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. Chronic antipsychotic treatment should generally be reserved for patients who suffer from a chronic illness that (1) is known to respond to antipsychotic drugs, and (2) for whom alternative, equally effective, but potentially less harmful treatments are not available or appropriate. In patients who do require chronic treatment, the smallest dose and the shortest duration of treatment producing a satisfactory clinical response should be sought. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically.

If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on ABILIFY, drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment with ABILIFY despite the presence of the syndrome.

Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, Including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis

In placebo-controlled clinical studies (two flexible dose and one fixed dose study) of dementia-related psychosis, there was an increased incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events (eg, stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatalities, in aripiprazole-treated patients (mean age: 84 years; range: 78-88 years). In the fixed-dose study, there was a statistically significant dose response relationship for cerebrovascular adverse events in patients treated with aripiprazole. Aripiprazole is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. (See also Boxed WARNING, WARNINGS: Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis, and PRECAUTIONS: Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness: Safety Experience in Elderly Patients with Psychosis Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease .)

Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus

Hyperglycemia, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, has been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. There have been few reports of hyperglycemia in patients treated with ABILIFY. Although fewer patients have been treated with ABILIFY, it is not known if this more limited experience is the sole reason for the paucity of such reports. Assessment of the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and glucose abnormalities is complicated by the possibility of an increased background risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia and the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the general population. Given these confounders, the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and hyperglycemia-related adverse events is not completely understood. However, epidemiological studies which did not include ABILIFY suggest an increased risk of treatment-emergent hyperglycemia-related adverse events in patients treated with the atypical antipsychotics included in these studies. Because ABILIFY was not marketed at the time these studies were performed, it is not known if ABILIFY is associated with this increased risk. Precise risk estimates for hyperglycemia-related adverse events in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics are not available.

Patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus who are started on atypical antipsychotics should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients with risk factors for diabetes mellitus (eg, obesity, family history of diabetes) who are starting treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment and periodically during treatment. Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when the atypical antipsychotic was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of anti-diabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the suspect drug.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Orthostatic Hypotension

Aripiprazole may be associated with orthostatic hypotension, perhaps due to its α1-adrenergic receptor antagonism. The incidence of orthostatic hypotension-associated events from five short-term, placebo-controlled trials in schizophrenia (n=926) on oral ABILIFY included: orthostatic hypotension (placebo 1%, aripiprazole 1.9%), postural dizziness (placebo 0.7%, aripiprazole 0.8%), and syncope (placebo 1%, aripiprazole 0.6%). The incidence of orthostatic hypotension-associated events from short-term, placebo-controlled trials in bipolar mania (n=597) on oral ABILIFY included: orthostatic hypotension (placebo 0%, aripiprazole 0.7%), postural dizziness (placebo 0.2%, aripiprazole 0.5%), and syncope (placebo 0.7%, aripiprazole 0.3%). The incidence of orthostatic hypotension-associated events from short-term, placebo-controlled trials in agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar mania (n=501) on ABILIFY Injection included: orthostatic hypotension (placebo 0%, aripiprazole 0.6%), postural dizziness (placebo 0.5%, aripiprazole 0.2%), and syncope (placebo 0%, aripiprazole 0.4%).

The incidence of a significant orthostatic change in blood pressure (defined as a decrease of at least 30 mmHg in systolic blood pressure when changing from a supine to standing position) for aripiprazole was not statistically different from placebo (in schizophrenia: 14% among oral aripiprazole-treated patients and 12% among placebo-treated patients, in bipolar mania: 3% among oral aripiprazole-treated patients and 2% among placebo-treated patients, and in patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar mania: 4% among aripiprazole injection-treated patients and 4% among placebo-treated patients).

Aripiprazole should be used with caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease, heart failure or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, or conditions which would predispose patients to hypotension (dehydration, hypovolemia, and treatment with antihypertensive medications).

If parenteral benzodiazepine therapy is deemed necessary in addition to aripiprazole injection treatment, patients should be monitored for excessive sedation and for orthostatic hypotension (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug-Drug Interactions).

Seizure/Convulsion

Seizures/convulsions occurred in 0.1% (1/926) of oral aripiprazole-treated patients with schizophrenia in short-term, placebo-controlled trials. In short-term, placebo-controlled clinical trials of patients with bipolar mania, 0.3% (2/597) of oral aripiprazole-treated patients and 0.2% (1/436) of placebo-treated patients experienced seizures. In short-term, placebo-controlled clinical trials of patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar mania, 0.2% (1/501) of aripiprazole injection-treated patients and 0% (0/220) of placebo-treated patients experienced seizures.

As with other antipsychotic drugs, aripiprazole should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that lower the seizure threshold, eg, Alzheimer’s dementia. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of 65 years or older.

Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment

ABILIFY, like other antipsychotics, may have the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. For example, in short-term, placebo-controlled trials of schizophrenia, somnolence (including sedation) was reported in 10% of patients on oral ABILIFY compared to 8% of patients on placebo. Somnolence (including sedation) led to discontinuation in 0.1% (1/926) of patients with schizophrenia on oral ABILIFY in short-term, placebo-controlled trials. In short-term, placebo-controlled trials of bipolar mania, somnolence (including sedation) was reported in 14% of patients on oral ABILIFY compared to 7% of patients on placebo, but did not lead to discontinuation of any patients with bipolar mania. In short-term, placebo-controlled trials of patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar mania, somnolence (including sedation) was reported in 9% of patients on ABILIFY Injection compared to 6% of patients on placebo. Somnolence (including sedation) did not lead to discontinuation of any patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar mania.

Despite the relatively modest increased incidence of somnolence compared to placebo, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that therapy with ABILIFY does not affect them adversely.

Body Temperature Regulation

Disruption of the body’s ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Appropriate care is advised when prescribing aripiprazole for patients who will be experiencing conditions which may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature, eg, exercising strenuously, exposure to extreme heat, receiving concomitant medication with anticholinergic activity, or being subject to dehydration.

Dysphagia

Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use, including ABILIFY. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients, in particular those with advanced Alzheimer’s dementia. Aripiprazole and other antipsychotic drugs should be used cautiously in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia (see PRECAUTIONS: Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness ).

Suicide

The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in psychotic illnesses and bipolar disorder, and close supervision of high-risk patients should accompany drug therapy. Prescriptions for ABILIFY should be written for the smallest quantity consistent with good patient management in order to reduce the risk of overdose.

Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness

Clinical experience with ABILIFY in patients with certain concomitant systemic illnesses (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations: Renal Impairment and Hepatic Impairment ) is limited.

ABILIFY has not been evaluated or used to any appreciable extent in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Patients with these diagnoses were excluded from premarketing clinical studies.

Safety Experience in Elderly Patients with Psychosis Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease: In three, 10-week, placebo-controlled studies of aripiprazole in elderly patients with psychosis associated with Alzheimer’s disease (n=938; mean age: 82.4 years; range: 56-99 years), the treatment-emergent adverse events that were reported at an incidence of ≥3% and aripiprazole incidence at least twice that for placebo were lethargy [placebo 2%, aripiprazole 5%], somnolence (including sedation) [placebo 3%, aripiprazole 8%], and incontinence (primarily, urinary incontinence) [placebo 1%, aripiprazole 5%], excessive salivation [placebo 0%, aripiprazole 4%], and lightheadedness [placebo 1%, aripiprazole 4%].

The safety and efficacy of ABILIFY in the treatment of patients with psychosis associated with dementia have not been established. If the prescriber elects to treat such patients with ABILIFY, vigilance should be exercised, particularly for the emergence of difficulty swallowing or excessive somnolence, which could predispose to accidental injury or aspiration. (See also Boxed WARNING, WARNINGS: Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis, and Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, Including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis.)

Information for Patients

Physicians are advised to discuss the following issues with patients for whom they prescribe ABILIFY:

Interference with Cognitive and Motor Performance

Because aripiprazole may have the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that aripiprazole therapy does not affect them adversely.

Pregnancy

Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy with ABILIFY.

Nursing

Patients should be advised not to breast-feed an infant if they are taking ABILIFY.

Concomitant Medication

Patients should be advised to inform their physicians if they are taking, or plan to take, any prescription or over-the-counter drugs, since there is a potential for interactions.

Alcohol

Patients should be advised to avoid alcohol while taking ABILIFY.

Heat Exposure and Dehydration

Patients should be advised regarding appropriate care in avoiding overheating and dehydration.

Sugar Content

Patients should be advised that each mL of ABILIFY oral solution contains 400 mg of sucrose and 200 mg of fructose.

Phenylketonurics

Phenylalanine is a component of aspartame. Each ABILIFY DISCMELT orally disintegrating tablet contains the following amounts: 10 mg – 1.12 mg phenylalanine and 15 mg – 1.68 mg phenylalanine.

Drug-Drug Interactions

Given the primary CNS effects of aripiprazole, caution should be used when ABILIFY is taken in combination with other centrally acting drugs and alcohol. Due to its α1-adrenergic receptor antagonism, aripiprazole has the potential to enhance the effect of certain antihypertensive agents.

Potential for Other Drugs to Affect ABILIFY

Aripiprazole is not a substrate of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or CYP2E1 enzymes. Aripiprazole also does not undergo direct glucuronidation. This suggests that an interaction of aripiprazole with inhibitors or inducers of these enzymes, or other factors, like smoking, is unlikely.

Both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 are responsible for aripiprazole metabolism. Agents that induce CYP3A4 (eg, carbamazepine) could cause an increase in aripiprazole clearance and lower blood levels. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (eg, ketoconazole) or CYP2D6 (eg, quinidine, fluoxetine, or paroxetine) can inhibit aripiprazole elimination and cause increased blood levels.

Ketoconazole: Coadministration of ketoconazole (200 mg/day for 14 days) with a 15-mg single dose of aripiprazole increased the AUC of aripiprazole and its active metabolite by 63% and 77%, respectively. The effect of a higher ketoconazole dose (400 mg/day) has not been studied. When concomitant administration of ketoconazole with aripiprazole occurs, aripiprazole dose should be reduced to one-half of its normal dose. Other strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 (itraconazole) would be expected to have similar effects and need similar dose reductions; weaker inhibitors (erythromycin, grapefruit juice) have not been studied. When the CYP3A4 inhibitor is withdrawn from the combination therapy, aripiprazole dose should then be increased.

Quinidine: Coadministration of a 10-mg single dose of aripiprazole with quinidine (166 mg/day for 13 days), a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6, increased the AUC of aripiprazole by 112% but decreased the AUC of its active metabolite, dehydro-aripiprazole, by 35%. Aripiprazole dose should be reduced to one-half of its normal dose when concomitant administration of quinidine with aripiprazole occurs. Other significant inhibitors of CYP2D6, such as fluoxetine or paroxetine, would be expected to have similar effects and, therefore, should be accompanied by similar dose reductions. When the CYP2D6 inhibitor is withdrawn from the combination therapy, aripiprazole dose should then be increased.

Carbamazepine: Coadministration of carbamazepine (200 mg BID), a potent CYP3A4 inducer, with aripiprazole (30 mg QD) resulted in an approximate 70% decrease in Cmax and AUC values of both aripiprazole and its active metabolite, dehydro-aripiprazole. When carbamazepine is added to aripiprazole therapy, aripiprazole dose should be doubled. Additional dose increases should be based on clinical evaluation. When carbamazepine is withdrawn from the combination therapy, aripiprazole dose should then be reduced.

No clinically significant effect of famotidine, valproate, or lithium was seen on the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug-Drug Interactions).

Potential for ABILIFY to Affect Other Drugs

Aripiprazole is unlikely to cause clinically important pharmacokinetic interactions with drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. In in vivo studies, 10- to 30-mg/day doses of aripiprazole had no significant effect on metabolism by CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan), CYP2C9 (warfarin), CYP2C19 (omeprazole, warfarin), and CYP3A4 (dextromethorphan) substrates. Additionally, aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole did not show potential for altering CYP1A2-mediated metabolism in vitro (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug-Drug Interactions).

Alcohol: There was no significant difference between aripiprazole coadministered with ethanol and placebo coadministered with ethanol on performance of gross motor skills or stimulus response in healthy subjects. As with most psychoactive medications, patients should be advised to avoid alcohol while taking ABILIFY.

No effect of aripiprazole was seen on the pharmacokinetics of lithium or valproate (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug-Drug Interactions).

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

Lifetime carcinogenicity studies were conducted in ICR mice and in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and F344 rats. Aripiprazole was administered for 2 years in the diet at doses of 1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day to ICR mice and 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg/day to F344 rats (0.2 to 5 and 0.3 to 3 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] based on mg/m2, respectively). In addition, SD rats were dosed orally for 2 years at 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg/day (3 to 19 times the MRHD based on mg/m2). Aripiprazole did not induce tumors in male mice or rats. In female mice, the incidences of pituitary gland adenomas and mammary gland adenocarcinomas and adenoacanthomas were increased at dietary doses of 3 to 30 mg/kg/day (0.1 to 0.9 times human exposure at MRHD based on AUC and 0.5 to 5 times the MRHD based on mg/m2). In female rats, the incidence of mammary gland fibroadenomas was increased at a dietary dose of 10 mg/kg/day (0.1 times human exposure at MRHD based on AUC and 3 times the MRHD based on mg/m2); and the incidences of adrenocortical carcinomas and combined adrenocortical adenomas/carcinomas were increased at an oral dose of 60 mg/kg/day (14 times human exposure at MRHD based on AUC and 19 times the MRHD based on mg/m2).

Proliferative changes in the pituitary and mammary gland of rodents have been observed following chronic administration of other antipsychotic agents and are considered prolactin-mediated. Serum prolactin was not measured in the aripiprazole carcinogenicity studies. However, increases in serum prolactin levels were observed in female mice in a 13-week dietary study at the doses associated with mammary gland and pituitary tumors. Serum prolactin was not increased in female rats in 4- and 13-week dietary studies at the dose associated with mammary gland tumors. The relevance for human risk of the findings of prolactin-mediated endocrine tumors in rodents is unknown.

Mutagenesis

The mutagenic potential of aripiprazole was tested in the in vitro bacterial reverse-mutation assay, the in vitro bacterial DNA repair assay, the in vitro forward gene mutation assay in mouse lymphoma cells, the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, the in vivo micronucleus assay in mice, and the unscheduled DNA synthesis assay in rats. Aripiprazole and a metabolite (2,3-DCPP) were clastogenic in the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in CHL cells with and without metabolic activation. The metabolite, 2,3-DCPP, produced increases in numerical aberrations in the in vitro assay in CHL cells in the absence of metabolic activation. A positive response was obtained in the in vivo micronucleus assay in mice; however, the response was shown to be due to a mechanism not considered relevant to humans.

Impairment of Fertility

Female rats were treated with oral doses of 2, 6, and 20 mg/kg/day (0.6, 2, and 6 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on a mg/m2 basis) of aripiprazole from 2 weeks prior to mating through day 7 of gestation. Estrus cycle irregularities and increased corpora lutea were seen at all doses, but no impairment of fertility was seen. Increased pre-implantation loss was seen at 6 and 20 mg/kg, and decreased fetal weight was seen at 20 mg/kg.

Male rats were treated with oral doses of 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg/day (6, 13, and 19 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) of aripiprazole from 9 weeks prior to mating through mating. Disturbances in spermatogenesis were seen at 60 mg/kg, and prostate atrophy was seen at 40 and 60 mg/kg, but no impairment of fertility was seen.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

In animal studies, aripiprazole demonstrated developmental toxicity, including possible teratogenic effects in rats and rabbits.

Pregnant rats were treated with oral doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day (1, 3, and 10 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on a mg/m2 basis) of aripiprazole during the period of organogenesis. Gestation was slightly prolonged at 30 mg/kg. Treatment caused a slight delay in fetal development, as evidenced by decreased fetal weight (30 mg/kg), undescended testes (30 mg/kg), and delayed skeletal ossification (10 and 30 mg/kg). There were no adverse effects on embryofetal or pup survival. Delivered offspring had decreased bodyweights (10 and 30 mg/kg), and increased incidences of hepatodiaphragmatic nodules and diaphragmatic hernia at 30 mg/kg (the other dose groups were not examined for these findings). (A low incidence of diaphragmatic hernia was also seen in the fetuses exposed to 30 mg/kg.) Postnatally, delayed vaginal opening was seen at 10 and 30 mg/kg and impaired reproductive performance (decreased fertility rate, corpora lutea, implants, and live fetuses, and increased post-implantation loss, likely mediated through effects on female offspring) was seen at 30 mg/kg. Some maternal toxicity was seen at 30 mg/kg; however, there was no evidence to suggest that these developmental effects were secondary to maternal toxicity.

In pregnant rats receiving aripiprazole injection intravenously (3, 9, and 27 mg/kg/day) during the period of organogenesis, decreased fetal weight and delayed skeletal ossification were seen at the highest dose, which also caused some maternal toxicity.

Pregnant rabbits were treated with oral doses of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg/day (2, 3, and 11 times human exposure at MRHD based on AUC and 6, 19, and 65 times the MRHD based on mg/m2) of aripiprazole during the period of organogenesis. Decreased maternal food consumption and increased abortions were seen at 100 mg/kg. Treatment caused increased fetal mortality (100 mg/kg), decreased fetal weight (30 and 100 mg/kg), increased incidence of a skeletal abnormality (fused sternebrae at 30 and 100 mg/kg) and minor skeletal variations (100 mg/kg).

In pregnant rabbits receiving aripiprazole injection intravenously (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day) during the period of organogenesis, the highest dose, which caused pronounced maternal toxicity, resulted in decreased fetal weight, increased fetal abnormalities (primarily skeletal), and decreased fetal skeletal ossification. The fetal no-effect dose was 10 mg/kg, which produced 15 times the human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC, and is 6 times the MRHD based on mg/m2.

In a study in which rats were treated with oral doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day (1, 3, and 10 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) of aripiprazole perinatally and postnatally (from day 17 of gestation through day 21 postpartum), slight maternal toxicity and slightly prolonged gestation were seen at 30 mg/kg. An increase in stillbirths, and decreases in pup weight (persisting into adulthood) and survival, were seen at this dose.

In rats receiving aripiprazole injection intravenously (3, 8, and 20 mg/kg/day) from day 6 of gestation through day 20 postpartum, an increase in stillbirths was seen at 8 and 20 mg/kg, and decreases in early postnatal pup weights and survival were seen at 20 mg/kg. These doses produced some maternal toxicity. There were no effects on postnatal behavioral and reproductive development.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. It is not known whether aripiprazole can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. Aripiprazole should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the fetus.

Labor and Delivery

The effect of aripiprazole on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.

Nursing Mothers

Aripiprazole was excreted in milk of rats during lactation. It is not known whether aripiprazole or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. It is recommended that women receiving aripiprazole should not breast-feed.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric and adolescent patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Of the 8456 patients treated with oral aripiprazole in clinical trials, 1000 (12%) were ≥65 years old and 794 (9%) were ≥75 years old. The majority (87%) of the 1000 patients were diagnosed with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type.

Placebo-controlled studies of oral aripiprazole in schizophrenia or bipolar mania did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. There was no effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of a single 15-mg dose of aripiprazole. Aripiprazole clearance was decreased by 20% in elderly subjects (≥65 years) compared to younger adult subjects (18 to 64 years), but there was no detectable effect of age in the population pharmacokinetic analysis in schizophrenia patients.

Of the 749 patients treated with aripiprazole injection in clinical trials, 99 (13%) were ≥65 years old and 78 (10%) were ≥75 years old. Placebo-controlled studies of aripiprazole injection in patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar mania did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.

Studies of elderly patients with psychosis associated with Alzheimer’s disease have suggested that there may be a different tolerability profile in this population compared to younger patients with schizophrenia (see Boxed WARNING, WARNINGS: Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis; Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, Including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia -Related Psychosis, and PRECAUTIONS: Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness ). The safety and efficacy of ABILIFY in the treatment of patients with psychosis associated with Alzheimer’s disease has not been established. If the prescriber elects to treat such patients with ABILIFY, vigilance should be exercised.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Potential for Other Drugs to Affect ABILIFY

Aripiprazole is not a substrate of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or CYP2E1 enzymes. Aripiprazole also does not undergo direct glucuronidation. This suggests that an interaction of aripiprazole with inhibitors or inducers of these enzymes, or other factors, like smoking, is unlikely.

Both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 are responsible for aripiprazole metabolism. Agents that induce CYP3A4 (eg, carbamazepine) could cause an increase in aripiprazole clearance and lower blood levels. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (eg, ketoconazole) or CYP2D6 (eg, quinidine, fluoxetine, or paroxetine) can inhibit aripiprazole elimination and cause increased blood levels.

Valproate: When valproate (500-1500 mg/day) and aripiprazole (30 mg/day) were coadministered at steady state, the Cmax and AUC of aripiprazole were decreased by 25%. No dosage adjustment of aripiprazole is required when administered concomitantly with valproate.

Lithium: A pharmacokinetic interaction of aripiprazole with lithium is unlikely because lithium is not bound to plasma proteins, is not metabolized, and is almost entirely excreted unchanged in urine. Coadministration of therapeutic doses of lithium (1200-1800 mg/day) for 21 days with aripiprazole (30 mg/day) did not result in clinically significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole or its active metabolite, dehydro-aripiprazole (Cmax and AUC increased by less than 20%). No dosage adjustment of aripiprazole is required when administered concomitantly with lithium.

Potential for ABILIFY to Affect Other Drugs

Aripiprazole is unlikely to cause clinically important pharmacokinetic interactions with drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. In in vivo studies, 10- to 30-mg/day doses of aripiprazole had no significant effect on metabolism by CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan), CYP2C9 (warfarin), CYP2C19 (omeprazole, warfarin), and CYP3A4 (dextromethorphan) substrates. Additionally, aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole did not show potential for altering CYP1A2-mediated metabolism in vitro (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug-Drug Interactions).

Aripiprazole had no clinically important interactions with the following drugs:

Famotidine: Coadministration of aripiprazole (given in a single dose of 15 mg) with a 40-mg single dose of the H2 antagonist famotidine, a potent gastric acid blocker, decreased the solubility of aripiprazole and, hence, its rate of absorption, reducing by 37% and 21% the Cmax of aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole, respectively, and by 13% and 15%, respectively, the extent of absorption (AUC). No dosage adjustment of aripiprazole is required when administered concomitantly with famotidine.

Valproate: When aripiprazole (30 mg/day) and valproate (1000 mg/day) were coadministered at steady state, there were no clinically significant changes in the Cmax or AUC of valproate. No dosage adjustment of valproate is required when administered concomitantly with aripiprazole.

Lithium: Coadministration of aripiprazole (30 mg/day) with lithium (900 mg/day) did not result in clinically significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of lithium. No dosage adjustment of lithium is required when administered concomitantly with aripiprazole.

Dextromethorphan: Aripiprazole at doses of 10 to 30 mg per day for 14 days had no effect on dextromethorphan’s O-dealkylation to its major metabolite, dextrorphan, a pathway known to be dependent on CYP2D6 activity. Aripiprazole also had no effect on dextromethorphan’s N-demethylation to its metabolite 3-methyoxymorphan, a pathway known to be dependent on CYP3A4 activity. No dosage adjustment of dextromethorphan is required when administered concomitantly with aripiprazole.

Warfarin: Aripiprazole 10 mg per day for 14 days had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-warfarin or on the pharmacodynamic end point of International Normalized Ratio, indicating the lack of a clinically relevant effect of aripiprazole on CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 metabolism or the binding of highly protein-bound warfarin. No dosage adjustment of warfarin is required when administered concomitantly with aripiprazole.

Omeprazole: Aripiprazole 10 mg per day for 15 days had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of a single 20-mg dose of omeprazole, a CYP2C19 substrate, in healthy subjects. No dosage adjustment of omeprazole is required when administered concomitantly with aripiprazole.

Lorazepam: Coadministration of lorazepam injection (2 mg) and aripiprazole injection (15 mg) to healthy subjects (n=40: 35 males and 5 females; ages 19-45 years old) did not result in clinically important changes in the pharmacokinetics of either drug. No dosage adjustment of aripiprazole is required when administered concomitantly with lorazepam. However, the intensity of sedation was greater with the combination as compared to that observed with aripiprazole alone and the orthostatic hypotension observed was greater with the combination as compared to that observed with lorazepam alone (see PRECAUTIONS: General).

OVERDOSAGE

MedDRA terminology has been used to classify the adverse events.

Human Experience

A total of 76 cases of deliberate or accidental overdosage with oral aripiprazole have been reported worldwide. These include overdoses with oral aripiprazole alone and in combination with other substances. No fatality was reported from these cases. Of the 44 cases with known outcome, 33 recovered without sequelae and one recovered with sequelae (mydriasis and feeling abnormal). The largest known acute ingestion with a known outcome involved 1080 mg of oral aripiprazole (36 times the maximum recommended daily dose) in a patient who fully recovered. Included in the 76 cases are 10 cases of deliberate or accidental overdosage in children (age 12 and younger) involving oral aripiprazole ingestions up to 195 mg with no fatalities.

Common adverse events (reported in at least 5% of all overdose cases) reported with oral aripiprazole overdosage (alone or in combination with other substances) include vomiting, somnolence, and tremor. Other clinically important signs and symptoms observed in one or more patients with aripiprazole overdoses (alone or with other substances) include acidosis, aggression, aspartate aminotransferase increased, atrial fibrillation, bradycardia, coma, confusional state, convulsion, blood creatine phosphokinase increased, depressed level of consciousness, hypertension, hypokalemia, hypotension, lethargy, loss of consciousness, QRS complex prolonged, QT prolonged, pneumonia aspiration, respiratory arrest, status epilepticus, and tachycardia.

Management of Overdosage

No specific information is available on the treatment of overdose with aripiprazole. An electrocardiogram should be obtained in case of overdosage and, if QTc interval prolongation is present, cardiac monitoring should be instituted. Otherwise, management of overdose should concentrate on supportive therapy, maintaining an adequate airway, oxygenation and ventilation, and management of symptoms. Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers.

Charcoal: In the event of an overdose of ABILIFY, an early charcoal administration may be useful in partially preventing the absorption of aripiprazole. Administration of 50 g of activated charcoal, one hour after a single 15-mg oral dose of aripiprazole, decreased the mean AUC and Cmax of aripiprazole by 50%.

Hemodialysis: Although there is no information on the effect of hemodialysis in treating an overdose with aripiprazole, hemodialysis is unlikely to be useful in overdose management since aripiprazole is highly bound to plasma proteins.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

ABILIFY is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to the product.

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

Controlled Substance

ABILIFY (aripiprazole) is not a controlled substance.

Abuse and Dependence

Aripiprazole has not been systematically studied in humans for its potential for abuse, tolerance, or physical dependence. In physical dependence studies in monkeys, withdrawal symptoms were observed upon abrupt cessation of dosing. While the clinical trials did not reveal any tendency for any drug-seeking behavior, these observations were not systematic and it is not possible to predict on the basis of this limited experience the extent to which a CNS-active drug will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed. Consequently, patients should be evaluated carefully for a history of drug abuse, and such patients should be observed closely for signs of ABILIFY misuse or abuse (eg, development of tolerance, increases in dose, drug-seeking behavior).

Disclaimer

Resources:

WebMD: Drugs And Medications Abilify Oral

EMedTV: Abilify

 

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